Knee replacement surgery also known as knee arthroplasty is a surgical procedure performed to replace a damaged or diseased knee joint with an artificial joint called a prosthesis. The surgery involves removing the damaged portions of the thigh bone (femur) and Sahin bone (tibia) and replacing them with metal or plastic components that mimic the function of a healthy knee joint. The goal of knee replacement surgery is to relieve chronic pain, improve mobility and enhance the overall function of the knee joint. It is typically recommended for individuals with conditions such as severe osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, post-traumatic arthritis, or other degenerative joint diseases that cause significant pain and functional impairment in the knee.
During the procedure, the surgeon carefully prepares the bone surfaces to accommodate the artificial joint components.
The components typically consist of a metal cap for the femur, a metal tray with a plastic insert for the tibia, and sometimes a plastic button to replace the back surface of the kneecap (patella). These components are usually fixed to the bone using bone cement or through press-fit techniques that encourage natural bone growth into the prosthesis.
Types of Knee Replacement:
There are different types of knee replacement surgeries based on the specific needs and conditions of the patient. The main types of knee replacement procedures include:
- Total Knee Replacement (TKR): This is the most common type of knee replacement surgery. It involves replacing the entire knee joint with an artificial joint. The damaged surfaces of the thigh bone, shin bone and kneecap are replaced with metal and plastic components.
- Partial Knee Replacement (PKR): This operation also referred to as a unicompartmental knee replacement is used when only one component of the knee is damaged or impacted by arthritis. The healthy sections of the knee joint are left unaltered in PKR only the injured area is replaced. In comparison to a total knee replacement, it is a less invasive operation.
- Complex or Revision Knee Replacement: This type of knee replacement is performed when a previous knee replacement has failed or needs to be replaced due to various reasons such as infection, loosening, instability or component wear. It involves removing the existing components and replacing them with new ones.
- Bilateral Knee Replacement: This surgery involves replacing both knees in a single operation. It may be performed if both knees are significantly affected by arthritis or other conditions and it can reduce overall recovery time for patients who need bilateral knee replacements.
- Minimally Invasive Knee Replacement: Minimally invasive techniques aim to reduce the size of the incision and muscle disruption compared to traditional knee replacement surgery. The specific techniques may vary but the goal is to minimize tissue trauma, reduce pain and potentially speed up recovery.
It's important to note that the specific type of knee replacement recommended for an individual depends on factors such as the extent of knee damage, the location of the damage within the knee joint, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's expertise and judgment. Your orthopedic surgeon will evaluate your condition and recommend the most appropriate type of knee replacement for you.
Total Knee Replacement:
Total knee replacement, also known as total knee arthroplasty is a surgical procedure performed to replace a damaged or worn-out knee joint with an artificial joint or prosthesis. It is commonly recommended for individuals with severe knee pain, stiffness, and functional limitations caused by conditions such as advanced osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. During a total knee replacement surgery, the surgeon removes the damaged cartilage and bone from the ends of the femur (thighbone) and tibia (shinbone) as well as any remaining cartilage in the patella (kneecap). The surfaces are then reshaped to accommodate the prosthetic components. The prosthetic knee joint typically consists of metal implants on the ends of the femur and tibia with a plastic spacer placed between them to allow smooth gliding motion. Total knee replacement aims to relieve pain, improve mobility and restore function in the knee joint. It can alleviate symptoms such as joint stiffness, swelling, and difficulty walking. After the surgery, patients typically undergo a rehabilitation program involving physical therapy to regain strength, flexibility, and range of motion in the knee.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Knee:
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation in the joints. When RA affects the knee joint, it is referred to as rheumatoid arthritis knee. In a healthy joint the synovium, a thin membrane lines the joint cavity and produces synovial fluid which lubricates and nourishes the joint. In rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system mistakenly attacks the synovium causing it to become inflamed. This inflammation leads to pain, swelling, stiffness, and decreased mobility in the knee joint. Rheumatoid arthritis in the knee might eventually result in more severe joint destruction if ignored or improperly managed. The knee joint's cartilage and bone may erode as a result of the persistent inflammation resulting in joint abnormalities and functional impairment. One or both knees may be affected by rheumatoid arthritis and the severity of the condition varies. It may have a substantial effect on a person's everyday activities and quality of life. In order to manage the symptoms, reduce inflammation, maintain joint function, and stop additional harm, early diagnosis and effective treatment are essential. The standard course of treatment includes a mix of prescription drugs, physical therapy, lifestyle changes, and occasionally, surgery.
Integrated Medical Care Hospital (IMC Hospital) is one of the most prestigious institutions in Pakistan which is known for its performance and outstanding results regarding Orthopedics & Trauma. Here you find one of the Best Orthopedic Surgeons in Lahore Pakistan. Visit today and book your appointment at Integrated Medical Care Hospital (IMC Hospital).
Dr. Amer Khan
MBBS, FRCS (England).
Areas of Focus: Primary and Revision Joint replacement surgery of the Hip, Knee, Shoulder, Elbow, and Ankle joints, Rheumatoid Arthritis reconstructive surgery of the hands and feet, Limb Deformity corrective surgery, Advanced Foot and Ankle Surgery, Spinal Surgery, Advanced Arthroscopic Procedures of the Knee and Shoulder, Management of Sports injuries and Arthroscopic ligament reconstruction of ACL, Management of Multiple Trauma Patients.